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James Parkinson, Physician of Hoxton

November 20, 2013
by Ruth Richardson and Brian Hurwitz

James Parkinson delivers an alehouse sermon (Image courtesy of Wellcome Library)

Eighteenth century maps show Hoxton – like Tottenham Court – as a small village surrounded by fields. To the south, only a few houses stood between it and Moor Fields, while open fields lay north and west, and to the east beyond Shoreditch, all the way to Bethnal Green.

James Parkinson, the man who would describe the disease which was posthumously given his name, was born in this hamlet in 1755. He grew up in Hoxton and, like his father before him, worked there as a Surgeon and Apothecary. Subsequently, Parkinson was followed in the same calling by his son and grandson.

He practised as a General Practitioner from his family home on the south-west corner of Hoxton Sq, which survived until the early twentieth century. Its successor on the same corner bears a plaque commemorating the Square’s most famous inhabitant. Occupied by a busy restaurant today, 1 Hoxton Sq, the site of his surgery and the house where he and his wife Mary had their six children, is no longer recognisable.

Parkinson lived all his life in Hoxton but he was far from parochial. He trained at the London Hospital and became an early member of the Medical Society of London, then housed near Fleet St – an important forum which spanned disciplinary boundaries, with members drawn from the fields of  surgery, physic and pharmacy. He was also an early member of the Humane Society, devoted to the resuscitation of people injured in accidents and drownings, and a founder member of the Geological Society.

In those days, a good doctor might be called far and wide. Parkinson’s professional catchment area had a wide radius, focused on Hoxton but perhaps extending as far west as Charterhouse, as far south as the City’s edge, and as far east as Whitechapel and the scattered farms and market gardens of Hackney and Mile End. His home patch probably included most of the neighbourhood of Shoreditch and Spitalfields, including the neighbourhood that would later become famous from Arthur Morrison’s novel as ‘The Jago’ – the great slum which once existed around New and Old Nichol Streets, now buried underneath the Boundary Estate.

Doctors see and learn a great deal about their patients’ predicaments as well as their illnesses. Like many in his profession, before and since, Parkinson was exercised by the politics of the day which favoured the rich and left the poor to suffer. Politically, he was a reformer and a member of the London Corresponding Society, an organisation which pressed for social improvement at a time when criticism of the government was a dangerous endeavour.

The British government was jittery for a generation after the French Revolution and their informers infiltrated every political meeting. Parkinson got caught up in the ‘Pop-Gun Plot’, a non-existent conspiracy to kill the King dreamed up by a spy to implicate a number of London Corresponding Society members. For a time, several of them were under threat of execution if convicted, but Parkinson gave evidence to the Privy Council and it became clear, during the legal process, that the spy had fabricated the story.

The inhabitants of streets like Shoreditch High St, Pitfield St, Elder St and Fournier St would have seen Parkinson’s familiar figure passing to and fro, visiting the sick in their homes. Historically, the area was clustered with City almshouses and madhouses, some of which Parkinson served. But of those people whose disease he described, and which bears his name, we know little other than they lived in the vicinity of his surgery at 1 Hoxton Sq.

Parkinson saw enormous changes in his lifetime. Before he died in 1824, he witnessed the disappearance of the fields surrounding Hoxton and the retreat of the open country northwards. Very little now survives of the Hoxton he knew. In present-day Old St, which has encroached upon the ancient road bearing the lovely name of St Agnes le Clare, it is difficult to visualise the rural nature of the area as it was then. But vestiges of his time do survive. One house still standing on the opposite side of Hoxton Sq was among those built when the square was laid out in the sixteen-eighties and the old parish pump still stands in St Leonard’s churchyard, while the eighteenth century girls’ school rebuilt in 1802 still boasts its presence on the facade of a building at the junction of Kingsland Rd and Old St.

Among the monuments in the lovely church of St Leonard’s Shoreditch, many commemorating those who were likely patients of Parkinson, is a modern stone commemorating his life. It was erected by nursing staff at the former St Leonard’s Hospital on the Kingsland Rd, which originated as the Shoreditch Workhouse where Parkinson once served as Parish Surgeon, Apothecary and Midwife. His tombstone in the churchyard has disappeared and the site of his grave is unknown, yet Parkinson was a Church Warden at St Leonard’s and he knew its stones well.

Hoxton of 1747 from John Roque’s Map

1 Hoxton Sq, today

1 Hoxton Sq, c. 1900 (courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London)

Parkinson’s memorial stone

St Leonard’s Shoreditch

Title page of James Parkinson’s  ‘Villager’s Friend & Physician’ 1804 (courtesy of the Wellcome Library)

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Thomas Fairchild, Gardener of Hoxton

6 Responses leave one →
  1. Barbara permalink
    November 20, 2013

    Thank you GA , a real education about an area of London that I love. More please????

  2. Melvyn Brooks permalink
    November 20, 2013

    Once again The Gentle Author has done a great job. I would like to add a lesser known fact about our hero-James Parkinson.
    In addition to private consultation Parkinson worked in the local workhouse very near to Hoxton Square. Three major killers were smallpox, tuberculosis and cholera. All febrile contagious illnesses. It was Parkinson who realised the importance of isolating the sufferers as best and as soon as possible in the conditions within which he worked. He was the first to introduce a Fever Ambulance in the hope of keeping an ill person with a fever separate from others on their way to the workhouse. I believe that this saved more lives than Parkinson’s essay on the Shaking Palsy. Even today, nearly 200 after its publication, we are sadly only on the freshold of curing Parkinsonism. Rarely there is a cure , often alleviation. Dr Melvyn Brooks Karkur Israel

  3. Gary permalink
    November 20, 2013

    From the state of the windows of 1 Hoxton Square in 1900 it is obvious that vandals were just as active then as now.

  4. margaret mcdermott permalink
    July 27, 2014

    I am enjoying the photographs so much. Not a Londoner myself but I come from a very working class part of Liverpool. Two of my greatest friends were Londoners one from the East End so it has a special place in my heart. Thank you so much for all the work that has gone into this site. A labour of love I believe. Best wishes, Margaret Mcermott.

  5. sally watkins permalink
    October 14, 2015

    I am writing an article about James Parkinson for our news letter, Bexley and Dartford branch of Parkinson’s UK. I cannot find much info of his later life and why he left Hoxton, London for Yorkshire where he died, but was buried in St. Leonard’s Church, Shorditch.

    Can anyone give me any clues?

    How I agree with Dr. Melvyn Brooks,s comment as I watch my husband gradually become more disabled from Parkinsons

    Excellent site, thanks for all the help it has given me

  6. Robert Greenwood permalink
    November 6, 2017

    This little pamphlet: An exhibition at the Library of the Royal Society of Medicine to mark the bicentenary of James Parkinson’s Essay on the Shaking Palsy.

    6th November 2017 – 27th January 2018.

    Admission free. Open to all.

    “The reader will now perceive, that this little pamphlet is highly worthy of perusal, and deserves the attention of the medical public.”
    The Medico-Chirurgical Journal and Review 1817; 4: 401-408.

    The physician and geologist James Parkinson (1755 – 1824) was a Fellow of the Medical & Chirurgical Society, the forerunner Society to the Royal Society of Medicine. His signature appears in the obligation book of the MCS. The minutes of the Medical & Chirurgical Society meeting held on November 25th, 1817 records James Parkinson’s donation to the Society of a copy of his Essay on the Shaking Palsy. The 1817 volume of the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions also records this fact, and it is listed in the 1844 printed catalogue of the Library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London.

    In his book on Parkinson, Christopher Gardner-Thorpe lists the RSM Library as holding one of the six copies said still to be in existence. We do, in fact, hold two copies. It is not known whether one of them is the copy donated by Parkinson. The copies displayed in this exhibition were entered in the RSM Library accessions register on 25th January 1929, and were described as “purchased” although with no indication as to where or from whom.

    This exhibition affords a chance to display these very rare items alongside works referred to in the Essay by Parkinson as well as early citations and reviews of this little, ground-breaking, pamphlet.

    Robert Greenwood
    Heritage Officer
    The Royal Society of Medicine Library
    1 Wimpole Street

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