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For I Will Consider My Cat Jeoffry

November 10, 2013
by the gentle author

Bowing to popular demand, Paul Bommer has produced a new edition of his print inspired by Christopher Smart’s eulogy of his cat Jeoffry, coinciding with Paul’s return to Spitalfields from Norfolk bringing an exhibition of prints to the Townhouse Window in Fournier St. And today I republish my story of Christopher Smart & Jeoffry in Old St, telling the tale behind this celebrated verse.


Whenever I walk along Old St, I always think of the brilliant eighteenth century poet Christopher Smart who once resided here in St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics, with only his cat Jeoffry for solace, on the spot where the Co-operative and Argos are today. So when artist Paul Bommer asked me to suggest a subject for an illustrated print, I had no hesitation in proposing Christopher Smart’s eulogy to his cat Jeoffry, the best description of the character of a cat that I know. And, to my amazement and delight, Paul has illustrated all eighty-nine lines, each one with an apposite feline image.

In an age when only aristocrats with private incomes were able to exist as poets, Christopher Smart was a superlative talent with small means who struggled to make his path through the world and his emotional behaviour became increasingly volatile as a result. He fell into debt whilst a student at Cambridge and, even though his literary talent was acknowledged with awards and scholarships, his delight in high jinks and theatrical performances did not find favour with the University. Once he married Anna Maria Canaan, Smart was unable to remain at Cambridge and came to London, seeking to make ends meet in the precarious realm of Grub St. His prolific literary career turned to pamphleteering and satire, publishing hundreds of works in a desperate attempt to keep his wife and two little daughters, Marianne and Elizabeth Ann.

Eventually, he signed a contract to write a weekly magazine, The Universal Visitor, and the strain of producing this caused Smart to have a fit, sometimes ascribed as the origin of his madness. Yet there are divergent opinions as to whether he was mad at all, or whether his consignment was in some way political on the part of John Newbery, the man who was both Smart’s publisher and father-in-law. However, Smart made a religious conversion at this time, and there is an account of him approaching strangers in St James’ Park and inviting them to pray with him.

In Smart’s day, Old St was the edge of the built up city with market gardens and smallholdings beyond. The maps of St Luke’s Hospital show gardens behind and it was possible that like John Clare in the Northamptonshire Lunatic Asylum, Smart was simply left alone to tend the garden and get on with his writing. Consigned at first on 6th May 1757 as a “curable” patient, Smart was designated “incurable” whilst there and subsequently transferred to Mr Potter’s asylum in Bethnal Green as a cheaper option – at a location known to this day as “Barmy Park.” Meanwhile, his wife Anna Maria took their two daughters to Ireland and he never saw them again. In 1763, Smart was released through intervention of friends and lived eight another years, imprisoned for debt in King’s Bench Walk Prison in April 1770, he died there in May 1771.

“For I Will Consider My Cat Jeoffry” was never printed in Smart’s day, it was first published in 1939 after being discovered in manuscript amongst Smart’s papers, and subsequently W.H. Auden gave a copy to Benjamin Britten who wrote a famous setting as part of a choral work entitled “Rejoice in the Lamb” in 1942.

The irony is that the “madness” of Christopher Smart, which was his unravelling as a writer in his own time, signified the creation of him as a poet who spoke beyond his age. Smart is sometimes idenitified as one of the Augustan poets, notable for their formality of style and content, but the idiosyncratic language, fresh observation and fluid form of “For I Will Consider My Cat Jeoffry” break through the poetic convention of his period and allow the poem to speak across the centuries.

It is the tender observation present in these lines that touches me most, speaking of the fascination of a cat as a source of joy for one with nothing else in the world. In fact, Smart was often known as Kit or Kitty and I wonder if he saw an image of himself in Jeoffry and it liberated him from the tyranny of his circumstance. Simply by following his nature, Jeoffry becomes holy in Christopher Smart’s eyes, exemplifying the the wonder of all creation.

It was a triumphant observation for a man who was losing his life, yet it is all the more remarkable that it is solely through this playful masterpiece he is remembered today. He did not know that – at the moment of disintegration – his words were gaining immortality thanks to the presence of his cat Jeoffry. And this is why, whenever I walk along Old St with my face turned to the wind, I cannot help thinking of poor Christopher Smart.


For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry.
For he is the servant of the Living God duly and daily serving him.
For at the first glance of the glory of God in the East he worships in his way.
For is this done by wreathing his body seven times round with elegant quickness.
For then he leaps up to catch the musk, which is the blessing of God upon his prayer.
For he rolls upon prank to work it in.
For having done duty and received blessing he begins to consider himself.
For this he performs in ten degrees.
For First he looks upon his fore-paws to see if they are clean.
For Secondly he kicks up behind to clear away there.
For Thirdly he works it upon stretch with the fore-paws extended.
For Fourthly he sharpens his paws by wood.
For Fifthly he washes himself.
For Sixthly he rolls upon wash.
For Seventhly he fleas himself, that he may not be interrupted upon the beat.
For Eighthly he rubs himself against a post.
For Ninthly he looks up for his instructions.
For Tenthly he goes in quest of food.
For having consider’d God and himself he will consider his neighbour.
For if he meets another cat he will kiss her in kindness.
For when he takes his prey he plays with it to give it chance.
For one mouse in seven escapes by his dallying.
For when his day’s work is done his business more properly begins.
For he keeps the Lord’s watch in the night against the adversary.
For he counteracts the powers of darkness by his electrical skin and glaring eyes.
For he counteracts the Devil, who is death, by brisking about the life.
For in his morning orisons he loves the sun and the sun loves him.
For he is of the tribe of Tiger.
For the Cherub Cat is a term of the Angel Tiger.
For he has the subtlety and hissing of a serpent, which in goodness he suppresses.
For he will not do destruction, if he is well-fed, neither will he spit without provocation.
For he purrs in thankfulness, when God tells him he’s a good Cat.
For he is an instrument for the children to learn benevolence upon.
For every house is incompleat without him and a blessing is lacking in the spirit.
For the Lord commanded Moses concerning the cats at the departure of the Children of Israel from Egypt.
For every family had one cat at least in the bag.
For the English Cats are the best in Europe.
For he is the cleanest in the use of his fore-paws of any quadrupede.
For the dexterity of his defence is an instance of the love of God to him exceedingly.
For he is the quickest to his mark of any creature.
For he is tenacious of his point.
For he is a mixture of gravity and waggery.
For he knows that God is his Saviour.
For there is nothing sweeter than his peace when at rest.
For there is nothing brisker than his life when in motion.
For he is of the Lord’s poor and so indeed is he called by benevolence perpetually – Poor Jeoffry! poor Jeoffry! the rat has bit thy throat.
For I bless the name of the Lord Jesus that Jeoffry is better.
For the divine spirit comes about his body to sustain it in compleat cat.
For his tongue is exceeding pure so that it has in purity what it wants in musick.
For he is docile and can learn certain things.
For he can set up with gravity which is patience upon approbation.
For he can fetch and carry, which is patience in employment.
For he can jump over a stick which is patience upon proof positive.
For he can spraggle upon waggle at the word of command.
For he can jump from an eminence into his master’s bosom.
For he can catch the cork and toss it again.
For he is hated by the hypocrite and miser.
For the former is affraid of detection.
For the latter refuses the charge.
For he camels his back to bear the first notion of business.
For he is good to think on, if a man would express himself neatly,
For he made a great figure in Egypt for his signal services.
For he killed the Ichneumon-rat very pernicious by land.
For his ears are so acute that they sting again.
For from this proceeds the passing quickness of his attention.
For by stroaking of him I have found out electricity.
For I perceived God’s light about him both wax and fire.
For the Electrical fire is the spiritual substance, which God sends from heaven to sustain the bodies both of man and beast.
For God has blessed him in the variety of his movements.
For, though he cannot fly, he is an excellent clamberer.
For his motions upon the face of the earth are more than any other quadrupede.
For he can tread to all the measures upon the musick.
For he can swim for life.
For he can creep.

Christopher Smart (1722-71)


Paul Bommer at St Luke’s, Old St.

The St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics in Old St where Christopher Smart lived with his cat Jeoffry on a site now occupied by Argos and The Co-operative.

St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics, Old St, in the nineteenth century.

Paul Bommer in the rose garden on the site of the former St Luke’s Hospital garden where Christopher Smart’s cat Jeoffry once roamed.

Paul Bommer’s print of Christopher Smart’s “For I will consider my cat Jeoffry.”

The Gentle Author’s cat Mr Pussy.

Copies of Paul Bommer’s new edition of Christopher Smart’s “For I will consider my cat Jeoffry” are available from the Spitalfields Life online shop.

Artwork copyright © Paul Bommer

Archive image from Bishopsgate Institute

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23 Responses leave one →
  1. Molasses permalink
    November 10, 2013

    Mr. Pussy’s face has character!

  2. Greg Tingey permalink
    November 10, 2013

    Fat cat on the mat
    may seem to dream
    of nice mice that suffice
    for him, or cream;
    but he free, maybe,
    walks in thought
    unbowed, proud, where loud
    roared and fought
    his kin, lean and slim,
    or deep in den
    in the East feasted on beasts
    or tender Men.

    The giant lion with iron
    claw in paw
    and huge ruthless tooth
    in gory jaw;
    the pard dark-starred
    fleet upon feet,
    that oft soft from aloft
    leaps on his meat
    where woods loom in gloom –
    far now they be,
    fierce and free,
    and tamed is he;
    but fat cat on the mat
    kept as a pet,
    he does not forget.

  3. Sambalsotong permalink
    November 10, 2013

    Beautiful – thank you.

  4. November 10, 2013

    Excellent post :o)

  5. Walter Blackstock permalink
    November 10, 2013

    “Simply by following his nature, Jeoffry becomes holy in Christopher Smart’s eyes, exemplifying the wonder of all creation.” Well-put.

    An article on Christopher Smart’s “Jubilate Agno” in the Public Domain Review may be of interest.

  6. November 10, 2013

    This is just wonderful! Thank you. I have long loved this poem – there seem to be fragments in so many anthologies for children – but I had never heard the story behind it or given it a “place”.

  7. Jeannette permalink
    November 10, 2013

    thank you for resurrecting him. we may be shadows, but on voit le soleil.

    I Am

    I am: yet what I am none cares or knows,
    My friends forsake me like a memory lost;
    I am the self-consumer of my woes,
    They rise and vanish in oblivious host,
    Like shades in love and death’s oblivion lost;
    And yet I am! and live with shadows tost

    Into the nothingness of scorn and noise,
    Into the living sea of waking dreams,
    Where there is neither sense of life nor joys,
    But the vast shipwreck of my life’s esteems;
    And e’en the dearest–that I loved the best–
    Are strange–nay, rather stranger than the rest.

    I long for scenes where man has never trod;
    A place where woman never smil’d or wept;
    There to abide with my creator, God,
    And sleep as I in childhood sweetly slept:
    Untroubling and untroubled where I lie;
    The grass below–above the vaulted sky.
    John Clare

  8. November 10, 2013

    Really interesting post – thank you. I sing in a choir that has just performed Britten’s “Rejoice in the Lamb” which contains part of this poem, in a number of concerts celebrating 100 years since Britten’s birth. But interestingly, the final line of the setting of the poem that Britten uses is: “For I am possessed of a cat surpassing in beauty, for which I have occasion to bless almighty God” and I can’t see this line in the full text of the poem given above. I wonder if Britten altered the poem slightly in his setting? Would be interesting to find out!

  9. November 10, 2013

    Ali, the part known as For I Will Consider My Cat Jeoffry is just an excerpt from Smart’s Jubilate Agno – Rejoice in the Lamb.

    Another part of it goes as follows:
    “For I am possessed of a cat,
    Surpassing in beauty,
    From whom I take occasion
    To bless Almighty God.

    For the Mouse is a creature
    Of great personal valour.
    For this is a true case–
    Cat takes female mouse,
    Male mouse will not depart,
    but stands threat’ning and daring.
    If you will let her go,
    I will engage you,
    As prodigious a creature as you are.

    For the Mouse is a creature
    Of great personal valour.
    For the Mouse is of
    An hospitable disposition”

  10. Bob Land permalink
    November 10, 2013

    I saw this the first time around and loved it. A great poem and superb pictures.

  11. Victoria Regina permalink
    November 10, 2013

    I so love cats. I love the artwork and the beautiful “considerations” to Jeoffrey.

  12. Chris F permalink
    November 10, 2013

    It makes you want to travel back in time and give Mr Smart a big hug and tell him that he’s not mad and that he will bring joy in abundance to future cat lovers everywhere. Lovely post…

  13. November 11, 2013

    A most touching and thorough story with the oh so talented Paul Bommer paying homage to the man and his cat in his inimitable way. Excellent historical context and good to see Mr Pussy getting a mention – no doubt his part was invaluable for the various poses. Particularly like ‘For he know that God is his saviour’ expression…

  14. Janet M permalink
    November 11, 2013

    I love this artwork and the story that goes with it. The artwork is so charming. I think it would make a great book too.

  15. Kathy Schnell permalink
    November 11, 2013

    Please make this into a book so we mere common folk can afford it! And to whom does the authorship for the lovely poem about fat cat on the mat go?

  16. Elizabeth cornwell permalink
    November 12, 2013

    Isnt that lovely & like cats through the ages.His life is as sad as John Clares & was almost the same,yet they both loved nature & animals.I think most animals are preferable to humans!

  17. November 13, 2013

    When we lost Finbar, our dear lurcher last year, I wrote a poem aka Christopher Smart:

    For Finbar

    For I will consider our dog Finn.

    For I loved him and am still bereft.

    For he was kind and never hurt one soul.

    For he had a golden coat, a pure, soft, honeyed caramel.

    For his nutbrown eyes were deep and wise.

    For he read my thoughts.

    For I read his mind.

    For he understood my words.

    For he had such powers to wrap himself around me.

    For he was a healer of the sick, a friend and guardian of our home.

    For he would howl if ever I would weep.

    For he held a mirror to my soul and shared my pain.

    For he was brave and thought he was a man.

    For he was cunning, like a gypsy’s dog.

    For he was full of joys and jokes and loved to dance.

    For he loved to run and race and play in snow.

    For he loved to eat and lived for food.

    For he would watch and wait for my return and know when I was close.

    For he was kind to young ones: kitten, pup or child.

    For the cat and he were friends, cwched up before the fire, they washed each other’s coats.

    For he was tolerant to a tiny fault.

    For he treated my son as a brother.

    For he considered himself one of us, a human.

    For he suffered stoically at the end and was so brave.

    For he is buried by the riverbank.

    For his grave is marked by heavy stones of white.

    For I still greet him as I pass and always wipe a tear.

    For he loved me

    For I loved him.

    For he still waits for us.

    Cait O’Connor

  18. May 24, 2014

    Dear Gentle Author
    How delighted I was when a friend sent me this blogsite, as I am working on the Benjamin Britten setting of a few lines of the poem for a little recital next week, and am planning to incorporate it into a longer performance of stories and songs about “Holy Cats. I only wish the print was still available.
    Thank you for this delightful stroll around Jeoffrey’s world.
    I had a beautiful black cat named Tanuis, but he left us 2 years ago.
    Elinor Benjamin, Storyteller, Nova Scotia, Canada

  19. December 2, 2016

    Lovely – thank-you. I’ve always been entranced by this poem but had no idea of its history. I love the art-work by Paul Bommer. Is a print only available in red?

  20. December 31, 2016

    I have 5 cats and I love all of them dearly each day they bring peace and happiness into my life.

  21. June 27, 2020

    A friend directed me to this post and I am so glad. The history is fascinating, the poem delightful and the illustrations by Paul Bommer enchanting. Thank you.

  22. Julie Roman permalink
    May 29, 2022

    Please could I order a print of the poster ‘For I will consider my cat Jeoffry’? Thanks

  23. Karyn permalink
    January 18, 2023

    Dear Gentle Author, is the print available anywhere? I would dearly love a copy

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