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Hot Cross Buns at St Bartholomew the Great

March 30, 2013
by the gentle author

Distribution of buns to widows in the churchyard of St Bartholomew the Great

St Bartholomew the Great is one of my favourite churches in the City, a rare survivor of the Great Fire, it boasts the best Norman interior in London. Composed of ancient rough-hewn stonework, riven with deep shadow where feint daylight barely illuminates the accumulated dust of ages, this is one of those rare atmospheric places where you can still get a sense of the medieval world glimmering. Founded by Rahere in 1123, the current structure is the last vestige of an Augustinian Priory upon the edge of Smithfield, where once  martyrs were burnt at the stake as public entertainment and the notorious St Bartholomew Fair was celebrated each summer from 1133 until 1855.

In such a location, the Good Friday tradition of the distribution of charity in the churchyard to poor widows of the parish sits naturally. Once known as the ‘Widow’s Sixpence,’ this custom was institutionalised by Joshua Butterworth in 1887, who created a trust in his name with an investment of twenty-one pounds and ten shillings. The declaration of the trust states its purpose thus – “On Good Friday in each year to distribute in the churchyard of St. Bartholomew the Great the sum of 6d. to twenty-one poor widows, and to expend the remainder of such dividends in buns to be given to children attending such distribution, and he desired that the Charity intended to be thereby created should be called ‘the Butterworth Charity.'”

Those of use who gathered at St Bartholomew the Great on Good Friday this year were blessed with sunlight to ameliorate the chill as we shivered in the churchyard. Yet we could not resist a twinge of envy for the clerics in their heavy cassocks and warm velvet capes as they processed from the church in a formal column, with priests at the head attended by vergers bearing wicker baskets of freshly buttered Hot Cross Buns, and a full choir bringing up the rear.

In the nineteen twenties, the sum distributed to each recipient was increased to two shillings and sixpence, and later to four shillings. Resplendent in his scarlet robes, Rev Martin Dudley, Rector of St Bartholomew the Great climbed upon the table tomb at the centre of the churchyard traditionally used for that purpose and enacted the motions of this arcane ceremony – enquiring of the assembly if there were a poor widow of the parish in need of twenty shillings. To his surprise, a senior female raised her hand. “That’s never happened before!” he declared to the easy amusement of the crowd, “But then, it’s never been so cold at Easter before.” Having instructed the woman to consult with the churchwarden afterwards, he explained that it was usual to preach a sermon upon this hallowed occasion, before qualifying himself by revealing that it would be brief this year, owing to the adverse meteorological conditions. “God’s blessing upon the frosts and cold!” he announced with a grin, raising his hands into the sunlight, “That’s it.”

I detected a certain haste to get to the heart of the proceedings – the distribution of the Hot Cross Buns. Rev Dudley directed the vergers to start with choir who exercised admirable self-control in only taking one each. Then, as soon as the choir had been fed, the vergers set out around the boundaries of the yard where senior females with healthy appetites, induced by waiting in the cold, reached forward eagerly to take their allotted Hot Cross Buns in hand. The tense anticipation induced by the freezing temperature gave way to good humour as everyone delighted in the strangeness of the ritual which rendered ordinary buns exotic. Reaching the end of the line at the furthest extent of the churchyard, the priests wasted no time in satisfying their own appetites and, for a few minutes, silence prevailed as the entire assembly munched their buns.

Then Rev Martin returned to his central position upon the table tomb. “And now, because there is no such thing as free buns,” he announced, “we’re going to sing a hymn.” Yet we were more than happy to oblige, standing replete with buns on Good Friday, and enjoying the first sunlight we had seen in a week.

The Priory Church of St Bartholomew the Great, a century ago.

John Betjeman once lived in this house overlooking the churchyard.

The ceremony of the Widow’s Sixpence in the nineteen twenties.

“God’s blessing upon the frosts and cold!”

A crowd gathers for the ceremony a hundred years ago.

Hungry widows line up for buns.

The churchyard in the nineteenth century.

Rev Martin Dudley BD MSc MTh PhD FSA FRHistS AKC is the 25th Rector since the Reformation.

Testing the buns.

The clerics ensure no buns go to waste.

Hymns in the cold – “There is a green hill far away without a city wall…”

The Norman interior of St Bartholomew the Great at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The Gatehouse prior to bombing in World War I and reconstruction.

Archive images courtesy Bishopsgate Institute

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10 Responses leave one →
  1. David WIlson permalink
    March 30, 2013

    The Gatehouse was in fact damaged during WWI rather than WWII – bombed during a Zappelin raid in 1916. The restoration was completed in 1932.

  2. Libby Hall permalink
    March 30, 2013

    What a fine Good Friday story. And, as always, most excellent accompanying photographs.

    But my goodness how genteel: hot cross buns served cut in half? One is meant to be able to hold a whole hot cross bun in an eager hand – with its frosted cross on top. I think this old widow would have found it hard not to momentarily sigh with disappointment at such a restrained presentation.

  3. March 30, 2013

    This is my favourite church! So beautiful but so sad that you now have to pay to go inside. I used to pop in often to enjoy the peacefulness and beauty (outside of service times) but no longer go since they introduced the hefty entry price a few years ago.

  4. March 30, 2013

    Many years ago, I did a school project in this church, for which I’ve always since had a great affection. But I didn’t know about the hot cross buns, nor about the entry charge. I’m really sad they thought this necessary: like DH, I find it a real barrier.

  5. March 30, 2013

    There is no entry charge for prayer, only for tourist visits. A Grade I listed building costs an enormous amount to maintain, & the alternative would be to keep it closed for much of the time.

  6. March 30, 2013

    St. Bart’s is very dear to me. On my first visit, while saying ‘thanks’ in the Lady Chapel, I felt a gentle presence. There was no one else around. Months later, when researching our family tree, I found a multi-great grandfather had been a parishioner of St. Bart’s in the 1600’s.

    Thank you for another brilliant post.

  7. March 30, 2013

    Free buns, what’s not to like!

  8. John permalink
    March 31, 2013

    The problem with an entry charge is that it puts less affluent people off regardless of their intentions, prayer or other. The net result is that only more wealthy tourist types can afford. Why not introduce a ‘voluntary’ donation option instead? Such a shame that the first thing you see when you walk through the doorway of such a beautiful and historic church is a an entrance charge.

  9. Ian Silverton permalink
    November 16, 2014

    Loved the pictures and the tale of the Buns, brought back my time their,as a pupil at school,back in the 1950s,under the headmistress Mrs Wallbank,and her husband the rector,Dr Wallbank.We used to sleep on the tombs outside in the summer, took my granddaughter to see it some years ago,she loved the stories,and think the charges are ok. My old class room their is now a coffee shop.

  10. Alder Carr permalink
    January 13, 2016

    So sad these token rituals; half a bun, even if buttered, and no sixpence. Does the original bequest only run to buns these days? I’d like to know how many twenty shillings could be distributed.

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